An adventurous trail that takes you deep into western Mongolia and the National Park Tarvagatai Nuruu, an area boasting expansive steppes, forested valleys, mountains, lakes and deserts. This is a challenging area to reach and to travel in, where there is very little tourist development compared to the usual Mongolian horse riding routes near Ulaan Baatar - but the rewards for travelling that bit further are great. For those who do make the effort, beautiful untouched landscapes, fascinating local culture, and perfect riding country awaits.
This trip, part-trek-part-road-trip, is faster paced than other Mongolian adventures, really allowing the horses to show you what they can do! If you prefer a slower pace, though, this can be accommodated. Mongolian horses are very hardy and full of character. The hosts, a New Zealand/ Mongolia partnership, work closely with local nomadic families who can provide a range of high quality horses with good tack suitable for any level of riding ability and exceptional service levels for an adventure of this caliber. Another highlight of this trip is the chance to experience the legendary hospitality of local nomadic families.
Staying in temporary campsites each night and cooking over an open fire this is a genuine wilderness experience. The ride has a flexible itinerary, which means that once the group sets off on the horses, you don't follow the same old trails, allowing you to make the most of whatever adventures Mongolia may send your way, following the land as generations of nomads have done before...
Please Note: The opinions expressed in these reviews are the author's and do not necessarily reflect the views of Unicorn Trails Ltd. These reviews are "directly from the horses mouth" and unedited. Unicorn Trails may make additional comments for clarification clearly identified in red.
Review received from JA of London on 03/10/2018
Arrival in Ulaan Baatar capital of Mongolia. You will be met by your hosts at the airport and transferred to your hotel. You are then free explore fascinating Ulaan Baatar before meeting up with your hosts and fellow riders in the evening for dinner.
Meet the drivers and head to Karakorum across the rolling steppe. You stay at this site famous for being the capital of the Mongolian Empire in the 13th century and visit Erdere Zuu Kiid monastery.
Drive to Terkhiin Tsagaan Nuur (The Great White Lake) which is surrounded by forested volcanic mountains. On the way we stop at Tsetserly to visit the market for any last minute supplies.
Today we cross the Solingontn Pass to reach the wilds of Zavkhan. Keep an eye out for bronze-age burial tombs dotting the hillsides. In the early afternoon we set up a river-side camp, and meet the horses. You will start with a safety briefing and pointers about the local riding style, and then begin by matching you to your ideal horse. A day ride around the area (a mix of forest and steppe) will allow you to decide if this is the horse for you.
A longer day ride around the area (a mix of forest and steppe) will allow you to decide if you and your horse have bonded. We also take along spare horses on the trek, available any time you would like to try something faster (or slower).
Ride south, up the broad Khojuul river valley, to meet the support vehicle with your luggage and camping equipment at Agtiin Am ('valley of thyme') campsite. Along the way we ride through an area of sand dunes, the perfect opportunity for less experienced riders to try a faster pace. The horses love to gallop over the sand!
Today we reach Ulaan Chuluu ('red rocks') campsite on the edge of Tarvagaatai Nuruu National Park. This area is particularly popular with nomadic herders who graze their yaks on the lush pastures. There's time to stop and visit friends along the way and taste delicious yak yogurt and other local delicacies which may challenge your palate.
Ride high in to the National Park where the landscape quickly becomes alpine, leaving the forested valley behind. If the weather gods favour us, we can reach Nogoo Nuur (Green Lake), a spectacular caldera high in the mountains. Visit an old hot spring for a well-earned soak. Abandoned at the end of socialist times, it has now been rediscovered by local people.
Days 9 - 10
Cross over the mountain range via a horse-only trail, and drop down to Dukhii Hyasar camp, where we often stay two nights. Hike in to the surrounding hills to look for hidden caves - during the dark days when monks were persecuted, they found refuge here. We once found a cave containing old Buddhist prayer scrolls - they are still there somewhere! It's also a great place to swim, fish, look for wildlife such as elk and wild boar, take a short ride, or just relax with a good book.
Today we continue down-river to Kharkhoit camp. The wildflowers through here in early summer are truly spectacular, with many wild varieties of species you may recognise from your own garden. Herders migrate to this area later in the year, so the lush meadows are a feast for the horses.
As we ride down out of the mountains, the landscape opens up to vast steppe once again. You and your horse will no doubt be eyeing up the opportunities for a gallop. We reach Gunzan camp in the afternoon.
During summer, herders graze this region, so it can be rather like riding through the Serengeti, but instead of zebras and wildebeast, we pass amongst herds of yaks, horses, sheep, goats, and camels. Once again you will experience the legendary hospitality of the local people.
After a final morning ride we drive south-west through desert-steppe to Khar Nuur, a desert lake where sand dunes meet crystal clear waters, or we drive north to Gandan Nuur, a lovely lake in the forest (depending on flights). Set up camp on the lake shore for two nights.
Khar Nuur or Gandan Nuur are perfect for relaxing after all that riding. Spend the day swimming, take a stroll on the dunes or in the forest, or just catch up on your diary.
Continue on to either Uliastai in the south, or Moron in the north, and fly back to Ulaanbaatar.
If you have time we will help with finding any last minute items to take home for friends and family, and you can see some more of the city. Finally we take you to the airport/train station and say farewell.
We recommend that you stay in Ulanbaatar for an additional night before flying home. This gives you more time to explore the city and allows for any disruptions in the domestic flights on Day 16. We are happy to give recommendations for accommodation for this.
Please follow this link for a map of the start point of this itinerary: Nomadic Steppes
The most common route to Ulaan Baatar (ULN) from Europe is via Moscow (SVO) flying with Aeroflot (£500-£800). An alternative option is to fly to Beijing (PEK), serviced by many international airlines, and to then fly or take the Trans-Mongolian train to Ulaan Baatar.
Even by Mongolian standards this area is off the beaten track, and riders are unlikely to encounter any other western tourists. Local nomadic families are not used to seeing foreigners, but are very welcoming, which makes for a rewarding cultural experience. The itinerary of the trips is flexible, allowing for more riding time and less time in the desert if the group decides as a whole. If riders would like to see Przewalski horses (the world’s only true wild horse), a day or overnight trip from Ulaan Baatar can be arranged (before or after the trip, at extra cost).
The four-wheel drive support vehicle allows participants to have a level of comfort which is not possible with pack horses (food, camping equipment etc). However to avoid this detracting from the ‘adventurousness’ of the trip, you meet the vehicle at the end of the day, while during the day you follow routes accessible only on horseback.
For riders arriving in Ulaan Baatar before day one of the trip, or staying longer after the trip, we can assist with arranging accommodation. Due to international arrival/departure schedules, it is often necessary to include an extra day or two in Ulaan Baatar before or after the trip. Small saddle bags are provided for each rider, which will hold a raincoat, water bottle and snacks for the day.
Please note, we will require a copy of your passport (photograph or scan of the ID page) to arrange internal flights, park permits and boarder permits. There is a 15kg weight limit on luggage for the internal flight. If your luggage exceeds this limit you will need to pay for the excess on site (approx. US$4/kg). It is possible to leave items at the hotel in a secure lock-up before setting out for the tour if necessary.
Mongolia is a developing country and this trip is to a remote region.
Choosing between Nomadic Steppes and Altai Region
The riding in the Altai does tend to be slightly more hard-core, with some steep mountain trails, but also plenty of opportunities for fast riding. Toward the end of the season you may encounter snow storms in the mountains, so you do need to be prepared for inclement weather. Both regions still have the wonderful Mongolian tradition of hospitality, but if you really want to experience the local culture, the Altai definitely has the edge. Wildlife can still be seen in the Altai (ibex, elk, wolves etc), but are less common in Zavkhan.
The Nomadic Steppes area is more geographically diverse, with classic open steppe, desert lakes and forested mountains. You also get to experience the Great Mongolian Road Trip if driving from UB to the start. And don't forget the abandoned hot spa we usually visit in the mountains - perfect after a few days hard riding!
Realistically anyone who is fit and active and has a good sense of adventure will be perfectly capable of participating in trips to either area.
We're avid readers here at Unicorn Trails and have selected several books connected to this ride. If you're interested in reading more about the area before you travel, or want to get into the cultural background, here are some suggestions that may inspire you. Click on the links for more information.
On the trail of Ghengis Khan - Tim Cope
Hearing birds fly - Louisa Waugh
Genghis Khan, Life Death and Resurrection - John Man
Amka and the Three Golden Rules (2014) - movie about contemporary small-town life. Trailer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_C8FDm17l1k
Nomads of Mongolia (2016) - short film featuring the nomadic herders and eagle hunting. Full movie: https://youtu.be/JsKNIeuKDrE
Please note: All itineraries are given for your guidance only and it may be altered on the ground and in accordance with the prevailing conditions by the organising team.
Even if you are an experienced rider, there will be a lot that is unfamiliar when it comes to Mongolian horses. Your hosts will take plenty of time to go through everything, and make sure everyone is comfortable with their horse before you head for the mountains. You are welcome to bring your own riding helmet, although it is not usual to wear one in Mongolia. The horses are local working horses, used by the local nomads for herding their livestock when they are not used on the trails. Because they are working horses, they are fit and kept in good condition. The hosts work with several local horse-owning families and have access to an almost unlimited number of horses. With so many horses available, the hosts are able to match horses to rider ability, from quiet horses (‘nomkhon mor’), through to more challenging ones for experienced riders. The horses are well-trained and responsive, but are not ‘broken’ to the same extent as horses in the West. As such they need to be treated with respect. They respond to western-style neck-reining. Mongolian horses are small but extremely tough, ranging in size from 12.2hh to 14.2hh, average 13.2hh. The tack is good quality Mongolian tack, with ‘Russian style’ saddles (more comfortable than the traditional Mongolian design). Saddle bags are provided.
Riders will be fully instructed on how to handle and ride Mongolian horses. Less experienced riders will be helped with basic riding skills where necessary. Participants should be prepared to ride 4-5 hours per day, although there may be longer days when necessary. The pace of riding is dependent on the terrain, and the ability of the group members, but in open country there will be the opportunity for confident riders to gallop (the group can split up during the day). The day’s riding tends to start with a morning ride, followed by a good lunch break, and then 2-3 hours before making camp in late afternoon. Terrain is highly variable, including open grass steppe-land, forested mountains and valleys, and arid desert. All trips are accompanied by an English-speaking guide, a wrangler/guide from the local area, and an English speaking interpreter.
Local wranglers are responsible for looking after the horses, but riders are more than welcome to assist and learn local techniques. Meals will be prepared, but riders are encouraged to help. Pitching of tents is the responsibility of the rider. Riders are expected to contribute to camping activities such as gathering of firewood. Riders are encouraged to assist when deciding on potential routes while riding.
This ride can be adapted to riders of all ability from beginner to advanced, although you must be able to mount and dismount unaided. The usual minimum age for this ride is 15 years of age, although younger children will be considered if they are experienced enough. Please enquire.
Please note, we will require a copy of your passport (photograph or scan of the ID page) to arrange internal flights, park permits and boarder permits.
The weight limit for this ride is 220 lb/100 kg, please enquire if you are an experienced rider exceeding this weight.
In Ulaan Baatar you will stay in comfortable single rooms with ensuite. Twin/Double rooms can be arranged for those travelling together on request. While driving between Ulaan Baatar and Tosontsengel you will stay in multi bed 'gers' (comfortable Mongolian felt tents). While riding, we will be camping, with 2 clients expected to share a 4 person hiking tent, so there is plenty of room. Clients are not expected to share a tent with a member of the opposite sex (unless they choose to). Campsites will have a natural water source for washing, and a solar shower will be available. Toilet facilities will be basic.
Simple hearty meals are cooked over an open fire. We carry staples (rice, pasta) with us, and support the local nomadic people by obtaining fresh meat and dairy products from them along the way. Fresh fruit and vegetables are not available in the countryside, but will be carried with us from Ulaan Baatar and used for the first few days. Delicious wild berries are available at certain times of year, and there are fish in the streams. There will be plenty of opportunities to sample local delicacies such as airag (fermented mare’s milk) and oorum (Mongolian clotted cream). A typical day’s meals: Breakfast: porridge or muesli with fresh yak’s yoghurt. Lunch: home made bread, local cheese, salami and spreads. Pickled vegetables. Fruit. Dinner: mild Indian-style lamb curry with rice. Snacks: chocolate bars, biscuits, tea, coffee, various local snacks. The food on this trek is of a much higher standard than you would typically get in the region – Mongolia is not famous for its cuisine!
Vegetarian or other dietary requirements can be accommodated with advanced notice. Please contact Unicorn Trails with requests.
Please note that it is your responsibility to ensure you have the correct documentation in place for your trip. If Visa’s are required the requirements can change from year to year depending on diplomatic relations. Please request information from the appropriate Consulate in your home country. Unicorn Trails will assist with any questions you have or supply any necessary supporting documents as required by the consulate on request.
All British and European passport holders must have a Mongolian visa. A Mongolian visa (for up to 30 days stay) is normally valid for six months from the date of issue and should be obtained from your nearest Mongolian Embassy before travelling. Your passport must be valid for more than six months after the date you intend to enter Mongolia.
Mongolian embassy in the UK can be contacted at:
Address: 7 Kensington Court, London W8 5DL, Telephone: (020) 7937 0150, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.embassyofmongolia.co.uk/
In the UK the British Foreign Office gives travel advice on 0207 008 0232/0233 or at www.fco.gov.uk.
The British Embassy in Mongolia can be found at: 30 Enkh Taivny Gudamzh, (P O Box 703), Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia
Telephone: (976) (11) 458133
Office Hours Local Time:
Mon-Thurs: 0830-1300 & 1400-1700, Fri: 0830-1330
July/August is the height of summer so you can expect warm days at this time of year. Sometimes hot enough to throw yourself in the nearest river at the end of the day, but usually just a pleasant riding temperature. The evenings can be cool, so you do need warm clothes for sitting around the camp fire. It can get down to below zero Celsius even in summer. In Zavkhan, summer does tend to be the rainy season although it's more the odd brief shower. Early summer is a good time to visit to see the spectacular wild flowers.
By September we are heading back in to autumn, so the days are crisp and sunny and there is always the chance of an early cold snap. Autumn brings a touch of colour to the forests and perhaps a dusting of snow to the mountains, and nomadic herders are busy preparing for the coming winter.
For up to date information on specific health concerns please contact the Medical Advisors For Travellers Abroad. Their website can be found at www.masta.org. You should also consult your G.P.
Mongolia is a relatively healthy country, with no vaccines needed other than the usual ones for travelling in the developing world (typhoid, tetanus, hepatitis A, polio). We suggest taking a small personal medical kit as above. A comprehensive group medical kit will be carried at all times.
We recommend that you visit a travel medical specialist such as Nomad Travel Store and Medical Centre www.nomadtravel.co.uk (in the UK), or your GP, prior to departure. They can give the latest advice on recommended vaccines for Mongolia, and suggest what to have in your personal medical kit. John is trained as a Wilderness First Responder (for situations where help may be some days away, as opposed to just first aid), but if you have medical training yourself please let us know. Most small towns have medical facilities, and while basic, in our experience they are of a reasonable standard
Electricity is 220 volts (U.K is 230) and most appliances can be plugged in with appropriate adaptors.
Your hosts now have an invertor which runs off the vehicle battery and produces 230V, into which any UK mains electric appliance can be plugged (good for charging camera, ipod etc). There is also a battery charger, which can charge ordinary rechargeable AA and AAA batteries.
Good quality film and batteries are only available in Ulaan Baatar. The support vehicle has a cigarette lighter which fits a standard adaptor, allowing cameras to be recharged. The ride will meet the suport vehicles every evening so there are many opportunities to re-charge batteries. Mobile phone calls can be made in Tosontsengel, but NOT once you are riding.
Ulaanbaatar is quite a ‘wired’ city, with numerous internet cafes, and even a free wireless network covering the city centre. If checking bank accounts etc, it is best to use the internet service in your hotel. There is cell phone coverage in UB, and some smaller towns which we will pass along the way. Once we start riding, there will be no coverage.
Sleeping bag and liner (good quality 3-4 season)
Riding / Camping clothes:
Riding hat. These are not supplied (although it is not usual to wear a riding hat in Mongolia).
Chaps are supplied but riders may like to bring their own
Boots / walking shoes
Comfortable trousers or jodhpurs
Shirts / T-shirts
Spare shoes / sandals
Thermal tops and leggings
Jersey / polar fleece
Raincoat and water proof over-trousers
Riders need to bear in mind that there is a large temperature range between day and night, it’s recommended to bring several warm layers for the evening.
Personal first aid kit:
We will have a comprehensive first aid kit for the group, but we suggest riders have their own kit containing items listed below:
Diarrhoea - Imodium or Lomotil
Constipation – mild laxatives
Headache or other mild aches and pains - paracetamol or disprin
Respiratory infections - nasal decongestant, throat lozenges
Skin care - sun block, after sun cream, lip balm
Wound care - betadine solution or prep pads, Neosporin ointment, Plasters, gauze, tape
Insect repellent and after-bite cream
Other useful things:
Camera (and lots of spare film, batteries, memory cards)
Plastic bags for keeping gear dry
Photo album (to show the local people your family etc.)
A pair of binoculars will be available for the group.
Sleeping mats are provided too.
You will be provided with personal saddle bags which are big enough to fit lunch, camera, water bottle, sun cream etc. A raincoat or warm jacket can be tied (securely!) to your saddle.
You will definitely need plenty of warm clothes. The basic problem with temperature in Mongolia is that it is highly variable, between day and night and from day to day. In June/July/Aug it is likely to be warm during the day, but could be below zero at night. By September it can start to get cool during the day. It tends to get cold sitting around the campfire in the evening at any time of year. So you need to bring light clothing for warm days, and plenty of warm clothing for the evening. A down jacket is good, because it squashes down when not being worn. A good 3-4 season sleeping bag and therma-rest type sleeping mat is essential. It is unlikely to rain a great deal, but you do need a good waterproof coat in case. A light pair of waterproof over-trousers is also a good idea. We have also been snowed on at all times of year, but they tend to be brief falls! You are much more likely to get sunburnt, so bring a wide-brimmed hat, or cap, or your favourite cowboy hat (with a cord to hold it on if riding fast).
It is a good idea to bring more clothes than you think you will need. It is possible to leave gear at your hotel in Ulaanbaatar, if you decide you have too much, and to leave the clothes you flew in. We have large bags to put your gear in, so you can leave your travelling bags in UB if you wish. If you do forget something vital, it is possible to purchase outdoor clothing and gear in UB, but it is not recommended (much of it is fake, or more expensive than back home). Traditional dels are not cheap but are very warm and look great!
We find that people tend to underestimate how much warm clothing they really need. We can confirm that what you intend to bring will be adequate, if you send us your proposed clothing list. If you find yourself short of clothing or equipment, hiring from a place such as www.trekhireuk.com or similar is a good option.
You can get away with just one pair of light hiking boots, which are good for riding in and for hiking, and also for wandering around the streets of Ulaanbaatar. No need for serious hiking boots, or ones which are particularly waterproof since if they get wet they will dry quickly. The stirrup irons are wide enough to take light hiking boots. Some people do prefer to take a pair of short riding boots, which are also fine, and keep another pair of boots for around the camp, or a pair of sandals (depending on the time of year). We provide chaps, so there is no need to bring long riding boots. There is a 15kg weight limit for domestic flights, so try not to pack too generously.
Duffel bags are provided to put your personal gear in, so you can leave your own bags safely stored in UB. Alternatively you are welcome to take your own bags if you prefer
This is a 17 day/16 night programme with set departure dates from June to September, but tailor made trips are also available with flexible start dates and lengths.
2022: 12 July; 18 August.
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Edge of Blue Heaven, by Benedict Allen (1999) (ISBN 0563383755). An entertaining account of this intrepid Englishman’s horse and camel trek through Mongolia.
Mongolia Lonely Planet, by Michael Kohn (2005) (ISBN 1-7459-359-6). The essential guide to Mongolia.
Genghis Khan – Life, Death and Resurrection, By John Man (2004) (ISBN 0593050444) Vividly brings to life the ancient Mongolian Empire.
The Story of The Weeping Camel (2003), film about a family in the Gobi desert.
Amka and the Three Golden Rules (2014). Great little movie. Everything you need to know about contemporary small-town life and a parable to warn Mongolians about greed from the mining boom. Trailer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_C8FDm17l1k
Nomads of Mongolia (2016). A wonderful short film featuring the nomadic herders and eagle hunting culture from the Altai Mountains where we ride. Full movie: https://youtu.be/JsKNIeuKDrE
'On the trail of Ghengis Khan' - about the epic journey of Tim Cope from Mongolia to Hungary
'Hearing birds fly', Louisa Waugh - a fascinating description of a year spent living in a village in Bayan Ulgii, in the west of Mongolia, near where we will be.
Gantsara, by Ian Robinson - wrote this book about his ride across Mongolia in the 90s. Ian sometimes leads these trips now.
For history, this is great, but you need plenty of time: http://www.dancarlin.com/product/hardcore-history-43-wrath-of-the-khans-i/
Hunting with Eagles: In the Realm of the Mongolian Kazakhs Photographer Palani Mohan
Non-riding companions are welcome to travel in the support vehicle, during the ride, meeting up with the group at the end of each day. This is a great way to meet the local people as the driver stops and visits his relatives along the way. There is also the opportunity to hike, and to fish in the rivers and lakes. The cost of the trip for non-riders is the same as for riders (they would be part of the maximum 10 people group size).
The area has traditionally been rich in wildlife, but in recent years hunting pressure and over-grazing has taken its toll on the local wildlife population. In the forests there are still wild boar, deer and wolves, and local people say there are ibex and rare argali sheep in the mountains. Out on the steppe you will see numerous raptors, demoiselle cranes, and other birdlife. In spring there is an amazing profusion of wild flowers in the mountains. Mongolia is home to the world’s only true wild horse, the takhi or Przewalski’s horse. Once extinct in the wild, it is now making a comeback after successful reintroductions. Herds of domestic yaks, camels, sheep, goats and of course horses roam at will.
Please note, we will require a copy of your passport (photograph or scan of the ID page) to arrange internal flights, park permits and boarder permits.
Washing: There is normally the opportunity to have a hot shower on the day before starting riding, and after, although this can't be guaranteed. On the trips you will ride past an old abandoned hot spa in the mountains, where there are lovely hot baths, filled from natural hot springs, so you are guaranteed to get a wash and a soak! There are also opportunities to swim in the rivers and lakes if the weather is warm enough. We always camp by a water source, so there will always be water for a wash, and plenty of firewood to heat it up a little if necessary.
Customs: You will have the opportunity to stop in and drink tea with the local nomadic people in their gers. Ger etiquette is a minefield, so your hosts will explain the do’s (eg. place your right hand under your left elbow when receiving or giving things) and the don’ts (eg. touch another person’s hat).
Participation required: Local wranglers are responsible for looking after the horses, but you are more than welcome to assist and learn local techniques. You are encouraged to help with preparation of meals. Pitching of your tent is your responsibility, with assistance when needed. It is hoped that you will contribute to camping activities such as gathering of firewood. We welcome your input when deciding on potential routes while riding.
Gifts: Your hosts carry various useful things to give to people when they think it is appropriate, such as notebooks and pencils for the kids, which they get in UB. Not sweets unfortunately. You do not need to bring gifts with you, although things which you can share with people when visiting are good, rather than simply handing something over. An example is snuff, which is often ritually shared between men when they meet (and honorary ‘men’ from foreign lands!). You should be able to buy small tins of flavoured snuff in your country (menthol is particularly popular). A few photos showing you riding or doing something interesting back home are also useful.
Visiting Ulaan Baatar: When people ask about staying in Ulaan Baatar it is suggested that two extra days is the most you would want to allow. That will let people see the Natural History and National History museums, which are both excellent, Gandan Monastery, the Bogd Khan's Winter Palace, and Zanabazar Fine Arts Museum, which are the main sites of interest. Hanging out in Sukhbaatar Square, a classic Soviet-style expanse, and watching the people is great too. There are some excellent cultural shows in the evening, including throat singing.
A day trip out to Khustai National Park to see the Przeswalski horses is a good idea, or even overnight (there are comfortable ger camps to stay in).
Mongolia is a huge landlocked country, more than six times the size of the UK, sandwiched between Russia and China. It is also one of the highest countries in the world, with an average elevation of 1580m. Mongolia can be divided into six distinct zones including desert, steppe, mountain and taiga. The southern third of Mongolia is dominated by the Gobi Desert.
The name 'Mongolia' has always stirred up visions of the untamed - Genghis Khan, camels wandering the Gobi Desert and wild horses galloping across the steppes. Even today, outside of Ulaan Baatar you may get the feeling you've stepped into another century rather than another country.
Mongolia is seven or eight hours ahead of GMT depending on which part of the country you are in. They use the metric weights and measures system, so kilometres and kilograms instead of miles and pounds. There is approximately 1.6 kilometres in a mile and 2.2 pounds in a kilogram.
The major religion is Tibetan Buddhism.